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In its simplest form bibliography concerns itself with the how and when and why and where and whence of books. Bibliographies ... are intended as tools for the scholar, weapons for the bookseller, and armor for the collector.—A. Edward Newton, Bibliography and PseudoBibography.

It is not too much to say that no bibliography, however scholarly in conception and however meticulous in execution is either complete or free from error.—John Garter, Taste and Technique in Book-Collecting.

The Shakers became a new interest in my life in 1937 soon after my arrival in Williamstown, Massachusetts, only a short driving distance from both Hancock Shaker Village in Massachusetts and the Shaker community at Mount Lebanon, New York. I visited both communities which were at that time no longer the neatly efficient, thriving agricultural enterprises so much commented upon by nineteenth-century visitors. Some cultivation by hired hands was in progress at Hancock and a few handmade pincushions, jellies, and Shaker boxes and baskets were for sale at the store. The Shakers were pleasant, some even jolly, but one was left with the impression of a once flourishing undertaking very slowly running down, with only the elderly left to carry on the Shaker way of life. There were at Mount Lebanon perhaps twenty-five members beyond their prime, but Robert Wagan's chair business was still being carried on by Eldress Sarah Collins and chairs could still be ordered. My most vivid memory of this visit is of Eldress Sarah finishing chairs by hand-rubbing and the serenity of her quiet pleasure in her work. Those gnarled arthritic hands were still active in spite of the handicaps age had brought. Here was the picture of the dignity of labor and the Shaker ethic "Hands to Work and Hearts to God," and I have always regretted that I did not have a camera to record this scene.

I was eager to learn more about the Shakers but discovered that Shakerism; Its Meaning and Message, by Anna White and Leila S. Taylor (Columbus, Ohio, 1904), then the most recent work on the history of the sect, was out of print. Fortunately, the Wight collection at the Williams College Library offered a rich resource of Shaker publications and the examination of this collection convinced me that there was need of a new Shaker bibliography. Many of the works in the collection had not been recorded in John P. MacLean's A Bibliography of Shaker Literature (Columbus, 1905). Since my professional training and experience had fitted me for just such work, I went happily about assembling Shaker references. Then I learned that someone else was busy at the same task. Reluctantly, I laid aside my project, little dreaming that over thirty years later there still would be no new Shaker bibliography and that I would find myself again assembling references. In 1937 it was my wish that a new Shaker bibliography would make accessible those materials which might attract an American historian to undertake a history of the Shakers written in the perspective of American history. Hopefully, the present bibliography may accomplish this purpose.*

In the interval at least nine different new Shaker bibliographies have been undertaken and aborted after varying lengths of time and for various reasons. The need for a new Shaker bibliography was recognized as early as 1912 when Wallace H. Cathcart, soon to become Director of the Western Reserve Historical Society., Cleveland, Ohio, had accumulated a large number of Shaker items not included in MacLean's Bibliography. He wrote to Eldress Catherine Allen of the Mount Lebanon Shaker Society, August 28, 1912, "When I get out in future years the large Bibliography of the Collection, I am going to have your portrait and Eldress Harriet's [Bullard] as frontispieces." (a.l.s. Western Reserve Historical Society.) Cathcart was the best qualified person to undertake the new Shaker bibliography, since he had succeeded in building the largest collection of Shakeriana anywhere, and a new Shaker bibliography would have been its natural corollary. Cathcart's collection was cataloged meticulously, but for reasons unknown his bibliography never materialized.

The purchase of Hancock Shaker Village by Shaker Community, Inc., in 1960 and the restoration plans projected for the Village reactivated my interest in the Shakers. In May 1967 Mrs. Lawrence K. Miller, President, Shaker Community, Inc., suggested that I compile a Shaker bibliography. Previous commitments and other reasons prevented any serious work before February 1968. In the intervening time Shaker references were accumulated, a history of the Shaker periodical The Manifesto (and its precursors) and The Day-Star were written, and background reading, especially about Shaker antecedents, was accomplished.


Initially this Bibliography was projected roughly as an updated parallel of J. P. MacLean's Bibliography, and would therefore have included only unannotated primary printed materials (excluding newspaper accounts). As hundreds of references accumulated, however, questions were encountered. The question of what really constituted primary printed materials where the Shakers are concerned caused a reconsideration of the original intention. Another consideration was the still accelerating interest in all aspects of Shaker life and beliefs reflected in the torrent of words published about these peculiar people, their religion, history, communal life, culture, architecture, craftsmanship, and industries. Among these works were many contributions that extended knowledge about the Shakers, and research

*The name "Shaker" was originally a mocking epithet derived from the shaking that possessed members of this religious sect while under the stress of spiritual exaltation during their meetings. The Shakers ignored the formerly derisive intent and referred to themselves generally as Shakers (or Believers). Many different names are encountered in the titles of Shaker publications and in formal communications: The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, Church of Christ's Second Appearing, The United Society of Believers, the United Society of Shakers, The Believers, The United Society, The Society of Shakers, The Millennial Church, The Aletheians, and Church of Christ (Shaker). The name "Shaking Quakers," widely used in the nineteenth century, is a misnomer. In this bibliography the name "Shaker" is used throughout.

would undoubtedly uncover many more. It was therefore decided to enlarge the Bibliography and to organize the printed materials into two parts (now published as two volumes): By the Shakers, and About the Shakers—each volume to be divided into a section recording books (parts of books, and pamphlets) and another section devoted to periodical articles. Consequently, it was necessary to back up and record the secondary items that had been found while searching for primary materials. The legal cases compiled by Gerard C. Wertkin were added as a section now at the end of Volume I. When about two thousand entries had been completed and organized in two parts, the accumulation was shown to several colleagues. It became apparent from the questions asked that annotations should be added if the bibliography were to enjoy wide usefulness and to offer essential information for those who were uninformed about the Shakers. Adding annotations involved backtracking again to re-examine items already recorded; annotations were added for any title not selfexplanatory, and in some instances the annotations provide considerable information.

Nearly five years were spent in the compilation, verification, and examination of the over four thousand entries in the present bibliography, examination of perhaps a thousand items that were discarded, and examination of many works that are cited only in the annotations. The entries include nearly two centuries of Shaker publications and attest the unflagging interest in the Shakers as shown in the works about them which cover the same time span. The body of materials recorded and described is intended to be comprehensive and to represent the wide spectrum of Shaker printed materials and the published works written about the Shakers.

The two volumes of this Bibliography approximate the conventional division of primary and secondary materials, with some qualifications. Shaker printed materials do not lend themselves to such neat categories or to a strict interpretation of what may be conventionally considered to be proper primary materials. Delimitation of the materials to be included in Volume I and Volume II involved many borderline cases. The question of what constitutes Shaker membership needed clarification.

If Shaker membership were construed to include only bona fide Shaker Covenant members, it would lead oddly to the exclusion of the father of Shaker literature, Richard McNemar, who was expelled, among other reasons, because he had not signed the Shaker Covenant at Union Village, Ohio. McNemar's position was anomalous. He expended so much time and effort persuading western Shakers to sign Shaker Covenants that, apparently through some oversight, he neglected to sign the covenant at his home, Union Village. Charles Lane, an Englishman, presents the other extreme. Lane established his residence in the Shaker community at Harvard, Massachusetts, after the failure of Bronson Alcott's Fruitlands community, and indentured his young son to the Shakers. Lane's relation to the Shakers remains ambiguous. He never signed the Covenant, but he did live among the Shakers long enough to reverse his opinion of some Shaker practices and to regret the indenture of his son. John Whitbey never signed the Covenant but lived among the Shakers at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, seven years before he was expelled. Among other borderline cases are J. M. Peebles, often referred to as an "associative" member, and Cyrus Teed {pseudonym Koresh) who was made a member at Mount Lebanon; but neither one lived as a Shaker.*

The Universalist minister John P. MacLean made frequent visits to Shaker communities in search of Shaker manuscripts and printed publications, but his interests were those of a bookman, historian, and friend. Although he stated that he had been made a member of four different Shaker Societies, there is no indication that he showed any personal interest in Shaker religious beliefs or their communal life. On the contrary, MacLean clearly pointed out that he had "studiously avoided the discussion of doctrinal theories, because it would have been superfluous and no tangible results would have been derived therefrom." He urged those who were interested in Shaker religious beliefs to communicate directly with the Shakers or to consult their standard works (Shakers of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio, 1907, p. 9).

Such ambiguities were resolved by adopting in Volume I a broad interpretation of Shaker membership which allows for a wider inclusion of materials interpreted here to be Shaker publications. Persons who have lived among the Shakers for a considerable period whether as Covenant, novitiate, or probationary members are considered to be Shaker authors because they have experienced at firsthand the Shaker way of life, and their writings derive from this experience. It should be recognized, however, that the Shakers themselves might well have employed a narrower interpretation. After several visits to the Shakers at Harvard, Massachusetts, Ralph Waldo Emerson commented: "It is true that a community cannot be truly seen from the outside. If deep sympathy exists, what seems interference, is not, being justified by the heart of the suffering party" (Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks, Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971, IX, 1843-1847, p. 162). Volume I also embraces works printed by the Shakers; works issued with Shaker authorization; works written by Shaker apostates and by those who were expelled; and a few works published before the authors joined the Shakers. Other works conventionally considered to be primary—state and national documents, patents, legal documents, etc.—are likewise included in Volume I. The writings of John P. MacLean are not included in Volume I because they are clearly historical, bibliographical, or descriptive and are not concerned with Shaker religious beliefs and practices or the Shaker communal way of life. Shaker printed materials omitted from Volume I include all printed labels, display posters for Shaker products, packaging materials, business forms and letterheads, school attendance records and merit award forms, and other fugitive materials, as well as newspaper accounts. Shaker manuscripts are omitted but are occasionally cited in the annotations.

The works contained in Volume II, About the Shakers, comprise publications about Shaker beliefs, history and practices, pacifism, music, art, dancing, design, architecture, craftsmanship, agriculture, industries, communitarianism, anti-Shaker

* The Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio, maintains a Shaker membership file of more than 16,000 names, but many Shakers are unaccounted for except in Shaker manuscripts that are widely dispersed; many manuscripts in all likelihood were destroyed.

tracts by non-Shakers, and in addition works of poetry, drama, and fiction in which Shakers appear or Shaker settings are utilized. These entries cover books, parts of books and pamphlets, and periodical articles which were published before 1973. (A Supplement of 1973-1974 items has been added.) Travelers' and visitors' accounts are also included in Volume II. Many of these accounts are valuable firsthand observations made by serious and informed observers such as those recorded by Robert Owen's party and the accounts of John Finch, Frederika Bremer, Harriet Martineau, Harriot Kezia Hunt, Hepworth Dixon, Marianne Finch, Benson Lossing, Charles Nordhoff, the anonymous writer at Letters from Kentucky, and others. On the other hand, among the thousands of nineteenth-century visitors to the Shakers, relatively few were interested in anything except the Sunday meetings, which they attended in droves to view the spectacle, particularly the dancing. Visiting the Shakers at New Lebanon, New York, was considered to be part of any sojourn at Lebanon Springs, a flourishing spa and resort frequented in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by visitors from all parts of the United States and abroad. This Shaker visit was advertised as an added tourist attraction included in a long weekend package offered by the Hudson River Railroad and the Hudson and Berkshire Railroad Stage. Earlier it was part of an excursion offered by the Hudson River Steamboat Company. Similar casual visits took place at the other Shaker communities. The accounts written by such visitors are for the most part repetitious and prejudiced reactions to an unorthodox form of religion and are of little value as firsthand observations of the Shaker way of life. Nevertheless they are of interest in recording visitors' reaction to the Shakers and have been included in Volume II.

The voluminous literature about the Camisards, French and English Prophets described in the Foreword as Shaker antecedents, has not been included in this Bibliography. The similarities of beliefs and practices of these groups with those of the Shakers are evident, and the Shakers themselves have testified to an undefined connection, but this area remains largely unexplored in scholarly Shaker studies, and a direct relationship has not been documented. The best account is found in John Symonds, Thomas Brown and the Angels (London, Hutchinson, 1961). Henri Desroche, The American Shakers, translated by John K. Savacool (Amherst, Mass., University of Massachusetts Press, 1971), discusses the marked resemblances between the Camisards and the Shakers. References to the Girlingites, followers of Mother Mary Anne Girling (1864-1886), often called English Shakers, Hampshire Shakers, or Shakers of New Forest, have been omitted because no relationship existed between, them and the American Shakers, followers of Mother Ann Lee. References to the American Indians of the Northwest identified as Indian Shakers or Puget Sound Shakers have not been included except where a possible relationship to the American Shakers is explored and discussed. Book reviews have been omitted in Volume II, except for a few nineteenth-century reviews that contain a reprinted account of the Shakers taken from the book being reviewed.


All serious scholars concerned with the Shakers owe a debt of gratitude to the pioneers who built the Shaker collections available in public institutions, and this Shaker bibliography is dedicated to them. Most of these collections were built in the first part of the twentieth century and were the result of the efforts of John Patterson MacLean, who first recognized the importance of preserving Shaker manuscripts and printed materials. MacLean's interest in the Shakers was aroused in the last years of the nineteenth century during an investigation of the Ohio mounds near the abandoned Shaker community at North Union (now Shaker Heights). He visited the western Shaker communities, where he established friendships with the old Shakers, who freely offered firsthand information about their past, furnished him with Shaker publications and manuscripts, and often called attention to long-forgotten publications. Later his collecting activities were expanded to include the eastern Shakers, with one of whom, Elder Alonzo Hollistcr, he enjoyed a fast friendship. Elder Alonzo encouraged and aided his search for Shaker materials. At that time Hollister was a member of the Ministry at Mount Lebanon, the parent body and seat of spiritual authority. After MacLean's great find of 1907 (see no. 2418, below) of the cache of Richard McNemar's publications at Union Village, Ohio, Hollister wrote to Brother Harlan at the same place, February 3, 1908, rejecting any Shaker claim on these materials {a.l.s. Berkshire Athenaeum, Pittsfield, Mass.). "I believe that he [MacLean] is in good work Sc am glad if he prosperd. I doubt if the pecuniary reward will any more than compensate him for the labor he has performed without money or price. Whatever money value the books may have, he has been the agent of its discovery & the Greater (under the higher unseen power), of the demand." Hollister also accorded MacLean the credit for arousing public interest in Shaker literature and continued, "He has distributed a great deal without pay, that was lying around idle in our garrets & storerooms."

MacLean's genuine interest in Shaker history is evident in his many publications, but more important were his collecting interests and his activities in the dispersion of Shaker printed materials. Bookselling activities were carried on largely by mail, and sales were promoted by issuing catalogs as additional items became available. MacLean supplemented these enterprises by an extensive correspondence in a barely legible hand with librarians and collectors. The choicest items were always offered first to the Library of Congress, where he later placed his own private collection. His Bibliography of Shaker Literature has served librarians and collectors since 1905 as the most complete Shaker bibliography. Hollister described it in the letter quoted above as "a laborious 8c elaborate production, that must have required considerable correspondence."

The largest collection of Shakeriana is owned by The Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio. It was assembled by Wallace H. Cathcart, with the invaluable assistance of Eldress Catherine Allen of the Shaker community at Mount Lebanon, New York.* When Cathcart became the first fulltime Director of the Western

* I am indebted to James W. Gilreath who has courteously allowed the use of information in his unpublished paper "Wallace Cathcart, Catherine Allen and the Formation of the Shaker Library." See also no. 3242.

Reserve Historical Society, there were only nine or ten Shaker items in the library, but he regarded the former Shaker community at nearby North Union as part of Western Reserve history and an area that came under the institution's collection policy. He was a knowledgeable bookman; his collecting skills had been developed and refined since early high school days. At the time Cathcart undertook collecting Shaker materials, he was aware that the finest collection of Shakeriana was owned by the Library of Congress and that MacLean offered the rarest items to that institution, and also that Eldress Catherine contributed some of the items because she thought that "as a national center things of special value would find the most fitting place" (a.l.s. to W. H. Cathcart, Nov. 19, 1911, Western Reserve Historical Society). Cathcart went about collecting intrepidly on his own and addressed his first inquiry to Elder Alonzo Hollister. This was an unfortunate approach because of Hollister's advanced age and his fast friendship with MacLean, but worse, in introducing himself Cathcart used the name of Joseph Slingerland, a western Shaker Elder who was then persona non grata. The inquiry brought meager results, and a year later he wrote again. The second letter came to the attention of Eldress Catherine Allen of the Mount Lebanon Ministry because of the death of Elder Alonzo in August 1911. Her reply was cordial but not encouraging; Cathcart was referred to MacLean, to whom she had recently sent many large packages of books in accordance with Hollister's desire. Although MacLean had been a former librarian of the Society, he chose not to cooperate in the building of its Shaker collection. A wary but friendly competition existed between him and Cathcart, interspersed with occasional boasting when either acquired an especially choice item.

Cathcart persisted and continued his correspondence with Catherine Allen, and as her responses grew friendlier, more Shaker items were sent to him. A warm friendship developed as she gradually became aware of Cathcart's genuine and unselfish interest in building the best Shaker collection in any public institution. The Society had not provided funds for this enthusiasm of Cathcart's, and, as his interest expanded to include all Shakerdom, his personal outlay became considerable. Moreover, he was meticulous in the preservation, treatment, and cataloging accorded each item acquired. He had a specially designed and engraved bookplate made by William F. Hopson of Boston for the collection. It shows the Mount Lebanon meeting house in a natural setting, with Shakers in the road. The portraits of Elder Alonzo G. Hollister and Eldress M. Catherine Allen are on either side of the bookplate. Eldress Catherine was presented with a specially bound and interleaved copy of MacLean's Bibliography in which Cathcart had indicated the items already acquired and those that he knew were needed to complete the collection. The inscription, dated October 16, 1911, signified that he now considered her to be a partner in his undertaking.

When Cathcart visited the Library of Congress and inspected its Shaker collection, he wrote to Eldress Catherine, perhaps not ingenuously, "that the collection had not been touched to put it into shape" [i.e. cataloged]. Her reaction was not immediate, but she soon informed Cathcart that he would now have first choice of all rare and printed items, and that they would be sent directly to him, but that the business arrangement previously planned with MacLean would be kept. She continued, "Both your high motives and fine methods in preserving records of worth dispose us to glean closer among our treasured stores that you may have sufficient data for connected history so far as we will be able to furnish." This welcome news enabled Gathcart to push his endeavors into new areas. Thereafter, Eldress Catherine Allen acted as intermediary between Cathcart and the other communities, and she wrote letters of introduction to the leading elders and eldresses so that he might obtain their cooperation with her approval.

As the collecting proceeded, Gathcart became convinced that much was yet to be found, and he urged Eldress Catherine to investigate as she traveled to other Shaker communities. Among other things he wrote that the early western Shakers Benjamin Seth Youngs and Freegift Wells had returned to the Watervliet, New York, Shakers and that their effects must surely be at that community. Eldress Catherine visited Watervliet in August 1912 and wrote, "Yesterday, a cupboard from which the key had long been lost was opened from the back and I have found a few treasures." Indeed she had: among them were the original manuscript of The Testimony of Christ's Second Appearing and an author's autographed first edition of the same work (Lebanon, Ohio, 1808) with the inscription "Miami Country, Ohio, Dec. 1808" (a.l.s. Western Reserve Historical Society).

The Shaker collection at the Western Reserve Historical Society had surpassed that of the Library of Congress in printed materials during the short period 1911-13 and would soon surpass it in the number of manuscripts. Because it is the best and largest Shaker collection, it has naturally attracted many gifts from other sources. Even MacLean came to recognize that "nowhere else had the Shaker material received such care in preservation methods and in making it accessible to students" (a.l.s. Catherine Allen to William W. Wight, May 14, 1918, Williams College Library, Williamstown, Mass.). Eldress Catherine remained alert to items of interest to Cathcart, and their correspondence continued in the same warm vein until her death in 1922.

Eldress Catherine, importuned by many others for Shaker materials, made substantial contributions to holdings in the following institutions: New York State Library, Albany; Public Library, Schenectady, N.Y.; the State Library, Hartford, Conn.; Berkshire Athenaeum, Pittsfield, Mass.; Garrett Theological Seminary, Evanston, 111.; the American Society for Psychical Research, New York; and the Connecticut Valley Historical Society, Springfield, Mass.

The Edward Brockway Wight Shaker Collection at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, represents a distinguished example of undergraduate collecting. The bulk of the Wight Collection was assembled between 1903 and 1907, but it was not presented to the College until 1931. Wight had an interest in the Shakers before entering Williams and shortly thereafter visited the community at Mount Lebanon, New York, armed with a letter of introduction from a Williamstown inhabitant who was a friend of Eldress Anna White. Some years later Eldress Catherine Allen described Wight at this time as a young man "who manifested an unusual interest in sociological efforts and who was making a thorough study of Shakerism and for that purpose was very persevering in collecting Shaker literature" (a.l.s. Catherine Allen to Wm. W. Wight, May 14, 1918, Williams College Library). He made frequent trips to nearby Hancock Shaker Village, not only to acquire Shaker literature but also to observe and discuss with the Shakers their religious and communal lives and to draft a plan of the entire Village and buildings to be used in a long term paper. The Shakers were often his hosts during his travels about New York and New England. He enjoyed their cordial hospitality at various communities where he was encouraged to learn more about Shaker history and practices and was sometimes told to help himself to whatever publications he needed. A number of the items in his collection bear the marks of former Shaker ownership. He has described seeing cupboards and trunks of Shaker books and pamphlets that had been unopened for fifty years. Some items were acquired from MacLean, with whom he exchanged duplicates, and some of the scarce apostates' accounts were acquired in the area bookshops. After he was graduated from Williams College, he left his collection with his father in Milwaukee while he went to his first job in Bremerton, Washington.

William Ward Wight, the father, was an enthusiastic bookman who had originated the plan whereby Milwaukee could acquire the beginnings of a public library by having the Young Men's Association turn over to the city its 10,000 volumes. He initiated a correspondence in 1909 with Elder Alonzo Hollister in an effort to purchase Shaker items to add to his son's collection. He received several Shaker publications from Hollister, but some of the lacks were western Shaker printing and for these he turned to MacLean, who supplied most of the lacunae. After the collection was presented to the College, further additions were made. The printed items in the Wight Collection rank after the Cathcart Collection at The Western Reserve Historical Society, but the collection lacks the extensive ephemera collected by Cathcart. The few Wight manuscripts in no way compare in either number or importance with the thousands of Shaker manuscripts in the Historical Society's collection.

The wide-ranging collecting activities of the late Edward Deming Andrews and Faith Andrews included Shaker furniture of every variety, textiles, artifacts, spirit drawings, manuscripts, and printed materials. The Andrewses lived near the Hancock, Massachusetts, and New Lebanon, New York, Shakers, where they were frequent visitors, but they also visited the Shakers in other communities. They bought widely from the Shakers, beginning very modestly in the early 1920's, and during more than forty years built enviable collections in almost every area of Shaker interest. (See the catalog Shaker; Furniture and Objects from the . . . Andrews Collections Commemorating the Bicentenary of the American Shakers, Washington, B.C., Published for the Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts by the Smithsonian Press, 1973). The Andrews Collection of Manuscripts and printed materials is reflected in their many books and articles recorded in this Bibliography. For some time in the late 1950's the collection was part of the library holdings of Yale University, but in 1969 the Andrews Collection was dedicated as part of the library at the Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum, Wilmington, Delaware. Although the collection was not cataloged at that time, this compiler was allowed to examine and record the printed materials.

Elder Otis Sawyer, a nineteenth-century member of the Sabbathday Lake community and Bishop of the Maine communities, was the exception to the Shaker lack of concern for the preservation of Shaker manuscripts and publications described above. Elder Otis assiduously preserved archival records and other manuscripts and printed materials at both the Sabbathday Lake and Alfred communities. This interest is reflected in the 1883 description by Aurelia Mace of Sabbathday Lake in The Aletheia (Farmington, Me., 1907): "I visited a library containing a copy of each book published by this Order since it was founded. It consists of one hundred and seventyfive volumes, with their revised editions. These books have been collected and numbered, and the library set in order for the reception of other books that may be published." Elder Otis used a printed bookplate to identify items in the collection. After his death in 1884 the collection was enhanced by the Shakers charged with administering the collection. Additions to it have been made by gift and purchase as items became available. Unfortunately, the valuable body of materials in the collection at Alfred was lost in 1902 in a fire that destroyed the dwelling house and the meeting house.

The Emma B. King Library, Shaker Museum, Old Chatham, New York, commemorates the Eldress responsible for the 1961 addition of printed and manuscript materials that enabled the library to take its place among the best working Shaker collections. The founder, John S. Williams, had become interested in 1935 in collecting and preserving Shaker furniture, tools, and workshop equipment. As he collected these artifacts he also began to accumulate Shaker manuscripts and publications. Considerable new material became available to him with the closing of the Mount Lebanon, New York, Shaker community in 1947. The intention of the ruling eldership, relocated at Canterbury, New Hampshire, was that manuscript and printed materials be sent to The Western Reserve Historical Society, but "Williams persuaded them that the materials should not leave the East and offered to buy the collection for his museum. For some time Eldress Emma King had been fearful that a fire might destroy the materials remaining at Canterbury. The Shakers had valid reasons for fearing fire; every Shaker community at one time or another had suffered severe losses from devastating fires. In 1961 Mr. Williams again offered to buy the materials and was allowed to do so with the proviso that the collection be housed in a fireproof or at least a strongly fire-resistant building. He agreed to erect such a building which was dedicated in 1962 and now houses the library of printed and manuscript materials. Subsequent additions to this collection have been made by purchase as items became available.

Over thirty collections of Shakeriana are listed alphabetically by state in A Guide to Shaker Museums and Libraries published by the Shaker Museum Foundation, Inc., Old Chatham, New York. This list is revised biennially and contains addresses and visiting hours, and in some instances indicates areas of strength in the collections.


The range of printed materials by and about the Shakers is impressive, but serious research on the Shakers must eventually involve the use of manuscripts that are not within the scope of this bibliography. Unfortunately, no census of Shaker manuscripts exists.

A surprising variety and quantity of manuscript records were kept in the separate families of each Shaker community by elders and eldresses, trustees, by the Ministry at Mount Lebanon, and others. These manuscripts comprise journals, account books, diaries, accounts of travel and of visits to other Shaker communities, covenants, matters concerning discipline, legal matters, correspondence, and records of membership and deaths. In addition there are the original manuscripts of Shaker publications; accounts of dreams and visions written mostly during the period of manifestations, 1837-1847; Shaker music; records concerning a single activity, such as farm or orchard journals; and account books for industries carried on by individual families—seeds, herbs, chairs, baskets, weaving, tanning, animal husbandry, and others.

During the years preceding the dissolution of a community the remaining Shakers were often aged and discouraged and showed little concern for the preservation of publications and the archival records in the community's possession. J. P. MacLean has commented that "A wise edict went forth from the New Lebanon Ministry that full records of the different communities should be kept . .. But nowhere, either directly or indirectly, do I find an injunction that such records shall be preserved." He continues that from the "inception of Shakerism in the West, Union Village has been the chief and ruling community. It would be supposed that the principal center would guard all archives with care ... It is positively known that some of these records have been purposely burned ... There were pamphlets published, but afterwards forgotten and no attempt made to preserve a copy" ("The Watervliet, Ohio, Shaker Community," in his Shakers of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio, 1907, pp. 192-93). Much later, Eldress Catherine Allen described how she tried to sharpen the historical awareness of the eastern Shakers. "[I] have been able to materially change the attitude of some [Shakers] concerned through the reading of your [Cathcart] letters with the thought that as an Order of people—a link in the chain of evolution ... our history belongs to the nation and to the world, and it is our bounden duty to use every reasonable means of having it preserved and perpetuated." She wrote later that "much has been destroyed for so many are surprised that I find value in much they considered of no account" (a.l.s. Catherine Allen to W. H. Cathcart, Feb. 1, 1912; Aug. 20, 1912, Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio). In the absence of a census of Shaker manuscripts, and because of the disappearance of manuscripts and the wide dispersion of remaining manuscripts among institutional and private libraries, the researcher has no way of anticipating where particular manuscripts will be located, or indeed if they exist. It was customary among the Shakers to make multiple copies. Consequently, copies of the same manuscript may be present in several collections. Manuscripts of individual communities will be found scattered among several libraries, and it is not unusual for manuscripts to be unidentified by either author or title.

The National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections currently being published by the Library of Congress (Washington, D.G., 1959 to date) locates a few Shaker manuscripts, and as publication progresses, it is hoped that more and more Shaker manuscripts will be recorded and described. The Cathcart Collection of Shaker Manuscripts relates to twenty Eastern and Western communities and covers the period 17821940. A Guide to Shaker Manuscripts in the Library of the Western Reserve Historical Society with an Inventory of Its Photographs, by Kerrnit J. Pike (Cleveland, Ohio, 1974) contains 10,581 items and also 1876 volumes of Shaker manuscripts. The Catalogue of the Emma B. King Library of the Shaker Museum compiled under the direction of Robert F. W. Meader (Old Chatham, N.Y., 1970), pp. 51-61, lists the manuscripts in that collection. The Edward Deming Andrews Collection at the Henry Francis Du Pont Winterthur Museum contains many Shaker manuscripts, seventy-two of which are listed in E. D. Andrews, The Community Industries of the Shakers (Albany, N.Y., 1932. New York State Museum Bulletin no. 323), pp. 301-307; others are referred to in "A Note on Sources," in his The People Called Shakers (New York, Dover Publication, Inc., 1963), pp. 293-338. The large collection of Shaker manuscripts in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress consists preponderantly of manuscripts from western communities and includes manuscripts of Richard McNemar. Over one hundred manuscripts from the Shaker communities at Watervliet and Mt. Lebanon, New York, are owned by the New York Public Library. A sizable collection of manuscripts of the eastern Shaker communities is to be found in the New York State Library, Albany. A large representative collection of Shaker manuscripts and printed materials is in the library of the still active community at Sabbathday Lake, Maine. The Fruitlands Museums Library, Harvard, Massachusetts, has a good representative collection of manuscripts pertaining to the Shaker communities of Harvard and Shirley, Mass. The Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, has available a mimeographed list of the Shaker manuscripts in its collection, which originated for the most part in the communities of North Union and Watervliet, Ohio. The Filson Club, Louisville, Kentucky, has many Shaker manuscripts of the Shaker community at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, and these are supplemented by the collection at Shakertown at Pleasant Hill. A sizable collection of Shaker manuscripts, mostly those of South Union, is owned by the Kentucky Library, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green. Smaller Shaker manuscript collections are found in the Berkshire Athenaeum, Pittsfield, Massachusetts; Wight Collection, Williams College Library, Williamstown, Massachusetts; Hancock Shaker Village, Pittsfield, Massachusetts; New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord; Connecticut State Library, Hartford; Harrodsburg Historical Society, Harrodsburg, Kentucky; and The American Society for Psychical Research, New York City. The descriptions of Shaker manuscript collections in "Preservation of Shaker Historic Materials," by Charles C. Adams, in New York State Museum Bulletin no. 323 (Albany, New York, 1941), pp. 123-28, are still useful.


The earliest bibliography of Shaker publications was contained in Charles Nordhoff's Communistic Societies of the United States ... (New York, Harper, 1875), pp. 421-28, nos. 1-72, where the works of Shaker apostates were included. "List of Works in the New York Public Library," published in the New York Public Library, Bulletin, Vol. 8 (Nov. 1904), pp. 550-59, contained Shaker publications along with a few works about the Shakers. John P. MacLean's Bibliography of Shaker Literature ... (Columbus, Ohio, For the Author by F. J. Heer, 1905) contains 548 entries, including some manuscripts and works about the Shakers, but the contents are preponderantly Shaker publications. It was the first bibliography of Shaker literature that could be considered a full representation of Shaker publications at the time it was published, and it has remained the standard bibliography of the Shakers for seventy years. The introductory essay, pp. 3-20, devoted primarily to early western Shaker publishing and printing, is a valuable source of information. More recent compilations of library collections include "Shaker Literature in the Grosvenor Library, A Bibliography," compiled by Esther C. Winter, Grosvenor Library, Bulletin, Vol. 22 (June 1946), pp. 116-19. Some works about the Shakers are included among the 388 entries. This compilation was revised by Joanna S. Ellett and published under the title "Shaker Literature in the Rare Book Room of the Buffalo and Erie Public Library" (Buffalo, New York, 1967); it contains 274 entries representing only Shaker publications. Catalogue of the Emma B. King Library of the Shaker Museum, referred to above, contains 319 entries for Shaker printed publications, pp. 5-50, and maps and photographs, p. 62. "A Bibliography of Shaker Periodical Literature," compiled by David Proper, Shaker Quarterly, Vol. 4 (Winter 1964), pp. 130-42; Vol. 5 (Spring 1965), pp. 26-32, includes about 300 periodical articles and more than 40 newspaper accounts. The entries are listed by title and arranged chronologically. "Addenda," including newspaper articles, and "Corrigenda" were published in Volume 5 (Winter 1965), pp. 141-44; Vol. 8 (Winter 1968), pp. 107-10; Vol. 10 (Winter 1970), 138-40; and Vol. 13 (Spring 1973), pp. 33-36.

The section on the Shakers in Charles Ha-ywood's Bibliography of North American Folklore (New York, Greenberg [1951]), pp. 726-32, contains basic Shaker works, publications by Shaker apostates, and works about the Shakers. A bibliographical essay on various aspects of the Shakers and Shakerism is contained in Arthur E. Bestor's Backwoods Utopias ... (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950), pp. 255-58. Similar bibliographical information is found in Donald D. Egbert and Stow Persons, eds., Socialism and American Life (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1952, 2 vols.). Volume 2, "Bibliography: Descriptive and Critical," compiled by T. D. Seymour Bassett, contains references to Shakerism, Shakers, their crafts, music, etc., pp. 11, 114-21, and 444-57, and further references are available in the index.


The entries in Volumes I and II of this Bibliography represent Shaker publications and works about the Shakers published through 1972. (Addenda and 1973-1974 Reprints and Supplement were added later.) Entries beginning with names spelled "Me" are entered as if the names were spelled out "Mac." The entries are numbered consecutively throughout; a few unnumbered information entries have been included and are easily identified as such. Cross references in the annotations are given by entry number and lead to related materials.

Individual entries within each part and subsection are given under the author's name, which is found enclosed within square brackets in those cases where the name has been supplied by the compiler. When the authorship of an entry cannot be reasonably attributed, the entry has been made under the title of the work. Entries have been made under corporate authors or under form entries where such treatment is appropriate. Repetition of an author's name is shown by an author ditto (a threeem line: •) which is placed before all titles and editions that follow the first entry under the author's name. Works by a single author are followed by the works in which the author has collaborated as a joint author (see the entries under Calvin Green, nos. 732-745). Pseudonymous works are entered under the author's name when it has been identified, and a cross reference is made from the pseudonym. Rewritten, revised, or enlarged works of an author are entered under the name of the original author. A few groups of related materials in Volume I have been kept together under category headings (Almanacs, Catalogs, etc.) listed in the Table of Contents. Such category designations are followed by explanatory notes, and the entries under each category heading are arranged in alphabetical order.

Individual entries throughout the Bibliography contain, in addition to the author's name, the title of the work; titles supplied by the compiler are set in square brackets. In some instances long titles are shortened by the use of ellipses (...) where the omission does not affect the meaning of the title. Repetition of an identical title is indicated by the use of a title ditto (a five-em line: •).

Sometimes identical repetitions in the first part of a long title are indicated in the same manner. In works that do not contain a title page the title has been taken from the cover title and so indicated before the collation (see below). The titles of periodical articles are enclosed within quotation marks. Editions other than the first, are given when indicated on the title page or on the cover title. Imprints are given in full, if ascertainable: place of publication:* publisher or printer, and date of publica-.

* Users of the Bibliography may sometimes be confused when Shaker communities are referred to by more than one name. For example, the name New Lebanon, New York, was changed to Mount Lebanon when the post office was established in 1S61. The site of the Watervliet, New York, Shaker community was formerly known as Niskayuna, an Indian name with variant spellings. Shakers, New York, was often used as the post office address. Since 1895, the community has been included in the township of Colonie. The original community at Sodus Bay, New York, was moved to Groveland (sometimes referred to as Sonyea) in 1837-38.

Publications often carried post office addresses. For example, the Canterbury community used the addresses Shaker Village and East Canterbury, New Hampshire; die Enfield, New Hampshire, community was also addressed Shaker Village. The Harvard and Shirley communities used South Groton and Ayer (Groton Junction), Massachusetts; Tyringham used the address South Lee, Massachusetts. Since part of the Hancock community was located in West Pittsfield, Massachusetts, this address was sometimes used as well as Stearnsville, Pittsfield, and Shaker Village, Massachusetts. Shaker Station and Thompsonville, Connecticut, were addresses of the Enfield, Connecticut, Shakers. The Sabbathday Lake community had the post office address West Gloucester, Maine, although New Gloucester is found on some publications. In 1890 the address was changed to Sabbathday Lake, to be replaced in 1955 by Sabbathday Lake, Poland Spring. South Union often used Russellville, Kentucky, and Union Village used Lebanon, Ohio, as post office addresses.

tion.* When the imprint or any item of the imprint has been supplied, it is placed within'square brackets.

In Volume I the total number of pages of a book is given, as represented by the last numbered page, or the total number of volumes. When the last numbered page includes the cover title, it is indicated by the comma that follows "cover title" in the collation; otherwise, "cover title" is followed by a period. Pages, if preceding the text, not accounted for by the last numbered page are indicated as p. 1. or p. 11. (preliminary leaf, leaves); unnumbered pages are indicated by placing the appropriate numbers within square brackets. It has seldom been necessary to indicate irregularities by describing gatherings. Surprisingly few variants were found in Shaker publications except for the unsolved enigmas of Richard McNemar's printing (see pp. 122-23). In Volume II only the last numbered page of a book (or the total number of volumes) is given. Arabic numerals are given in all entries for periodical articles (roman numerals have been converted, when necessary), and the inclusive pages of an article are given. Illustrations are indicated, but not in great detail. The height of a work is given to the nearest half centimeter. Both the height and width of broadsides are given to the nearest half centimeter. No measurements are given for works in Volume II.

Although broadsides might be considered a distinct category, they have not been separated from other formats because many Shaker publications were issued both as broadsides and as small leaflets or pamphlets. The isolation of broadsides would have necessitated one more section in the bibliography, and no real purpose would have been served by separating identical texts in this way. Broadsides are so identified only when printed on the recto (right-hand side) of a sheet. If printed text appears also on the verso, the item is described as [2] pp.

Annotations follow bibliographical entries. If the title indicates the contents of a work, it has not always been considered necessary to add an annotation. In many instances, however, annotations are given in some detail when the information is considered to be of importance; in other entries a short reference has been considered sufficient.

* Somewhat less than half of the entries in Volume I were printed by the Shakers. Most of the remaining entries were printed by job printers or in commercial printing establishments, but many do not carry any imprint. In the early Shaker communities it was not uncommon to find printing presses operated by printers who were Shakers. In 1818 John Dunlavy's The Manifesto, a book of 520 pages, was printed at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, on Shaker-made paper and was bound in the community. At Hancock, Massachusetts, Josiah Tallcott, Jr., printed Millennial Praises in 1812 and 1813. Presses were active at one time or another at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky; Union Village, North Union, and Watervliet, Ohio; Mount Lebanon and Watervliet, New York; Harvard, Massachusetts; and Sabbathday Lake, Maine, where the printing of small items has been undertaken again recently. At Canterbury, New Hampshire, substantial Shaker works were printed after 1842, and the Shaker periodical The Manifesto was printed there from 18S7 through 1899. No study of Shaker printing has ever been published.

The entries in Volume I, By the Shakers, conclude with a shortened reference to other standard bibliographies where the work is recorded (see pp. xxxvii-xxxviii), followed by symbols which represent libraries that own the work (see pp. xxxix-xlv). These symbols are not intended to comprise an exhaustive list of the libraries where the item maybe found., but where possible do represent awide geographical distribution. The presence of a single symbol indicates the only library where the item was located. The considerable holdings of the Shaker Library, Sabbathday Lake, Maine, are not included because this collection was not available to the compiler; its holdings are not represented in the National Union Catalog. The holdings given represent libraries indicated on the cards in the National Union Catalog at the Library of Congress (as of 1970 and 1971), unless the number of libraries exceeds twenty-five. In addition, some holdings for libraries that do not report to the National Union Catalog have been included. It was considered unnecessary to give the library holdings for the entries in Volume II.


I have been the fortunate recipient of generous cooperation from many persons interested in the compilation of this Shaker bibliography. In the Shaker spirit of sharing, persons sometimes previously unknown to me have generously volunteered whatever knowledge or material they possessed in the hope that it might help to portray the vitality and diversity of the religious communal lives of the Shakers. This extensive cooperation has enabled the compiler to examine practically all of the entries in this bibliography, or to examine photocopies supplied from several sources. In some instances a few trusted colleagues have acted as surrogates and have verified or completed references.

I am most grateful to the late Eldress Marguerite Frost and to Eldress Gertrude Soule, whose friendly advice and benevolent best wishes for the success of the Shaker Bibliography were a great encouragement, and to Eldress Bertha Lindsay and Sister Miriam Wall, who have kindly and patiently answered several inquiries.

In a special category I am greatly indebted to the Shaker Community, Inc., Pittsfield, Massachusetts, and in particular to its President, Mrs. Lawrence K. Miller, for her many kindnesses and for the initial grant for Volume I; for the expense of office equipment and supplies, telephone calls, photocopies, and the extensive travel involved in visits to more than fifty libraries in search of Shaker printed materials; and in addition for later support that covered most of the costs of preparing the final manuscript. Volume II is the compiler's contribution to Shaker studies. The copyright is held by Shaker Community, Inc.

An unusual debt of gratitude is owed Lawrence E. Wikander, Librarian of Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, who not only provided an office for four years but also offered unlimited access to the Wight Shaker Collection and numerous other courtesies. I also wish to express my gratitude to the Williams Library staff for friendly and unfailing cooperation in meeting my often bizarre requests. In particular, I thank Nancy G. McFadyen, Assistant to the Librarian, for uncanny ingenuity in producing obscure titles on interlibrary loans; to Mary Mclnerney, Catalog Librarian, and Marie Pistorius, Cataloger, for helpful advice and reassurance; to Juanita Terry, formerly Reference Librarian, Sarah C. McFarland, Reference Librarian, Anne H. Fitz, Circulation Librarian, and Isabella E. Welch, formerly Acquisitions Librarian, for various kindnesses; Judy Jane Jones for her painstaking efforts which produced excellent photocopies; and Donald E. Gary, former Assistant Librarian, for checking the alphabetizing throughout the bibliography.

An almost identical debt of gratitude is owed Meredith B. Colket, Jr., Director, The Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio, and to Kermit J. Pike, Chief Librarian, both of whom offered every facility during my many visits to the Cathcart Collection in that institution. Special thanks go to Jack Large, Jr., Archives and Publications, whose solicitous attention for my welfare away from home eased the way; to Virginia G. Hawley, General Reference Supervisor, for many kindnesses extending over a long period; and to Anthony W. C. Phelps, Assistant Librarian. The basis of Volume I of this bibliography was compiled at Williams College and at this institution. The first work involved recording, collating, and describing every Shaker item in the Wight Collection. These records were compared individually with Shaker items in the Cathcart Collection in an attempt to discover variants. The procedure necessitated a month's time on the first visit to the Cathcart Collection, where Shaker references were amplified very considerably on later visits and some scarce items in Volume II were added.

It is with the greatest pleasure that I acknowledge appreciation and indebtedness to a formidable list of individuals who contributed freely in various ways to the accuracy and completeness of this Bibliography: to Gerard C. Wertkin, Counselor at Law, New York City, whose conscientious and prolonged pursuit of clues produced especially for this Bibliography the first compilation of legal cases involving the Shakers. To A. Donald Emerich, Old Chatham, New York, whose knowledgeable and enthusiastic encouragement really got the Bibliography under way initially, and for other contributions and courtesies. To Eugene M. Dodd, former Curator of Hancock Shaker Village, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, for his sustained interest and encouragement throughout the preparation of the Bibliography, his alertness in bringing current publications to my attention, and for innumerable other kindnesses. To Wilma Stein Davis, Camp Springs, Maryland, who upon learning of the preparation of this bibliography, spontaneously sent the notebook containing more than 150 entries of her Shaker bibliography compiled in the 1940's and also for her unique interleaved copy of J. P. MacLean's Bibliography of Shaker Literature which Wallace H. Cathcart presented to Eldress Catherine Allen in 1911, and for searching records in the U.S. Copyright Office. To George J. Finney, Alexandria, Virginia, whose long-standing scholarly knowledge of the Shakers was freely shared with me, for volunteering his accumulated references toward a Shaker bibliography undertaken in the late 1930's, and for his assiduous and trustworthy verification of references available in the Library of Congress, the National Archives, and the U.S. Copyright Office. To William Henry Harrison, Director, Fruitlands Museums, Harvard, Massachusetts, for his courteous and intelligent cooperation during several visits that included the unbounded and friendly hospitality of both him and his wife, Clio. To Julia Neal, former Director of the Kentucky Library, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, whose knowledge of the western Shakers clarified several questions, and for her warm and pleasant cooperation and gracious hospitality, including that of her Library staff, whose high morale brought a glow of pleasure. To Wyllis E. Wright, former Librarian of Williams College, who generously contributed the accumulated references for his Shaker bibliography undertaken in the late 1940's. To H. Richard Archer, Custodian, Chapin Library, Williams College, for many courtesies. To Robert F. W. Meader, Director, Shaker Museum, Old Chatham, New York, whose generous cooperation and trust allowed unsupervised use of the Shaker collection, and who never was content to answer a telephone inquiry without later sending photocopies to document the information. To Professor Elmer Ray Pearson, Institute of Design of the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, whose knowledge of the Shakers was brought to bear upon many questions, for his generosity in allowing me to compare my list of Shaker patents with the list he had compiled, and for furnishing many photographs of Shaker publications. To James W. Gilreath, graduate student, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, for allowing the use of a prepublication copy of "Wallace Cathcart, Catherine Allen and the Formation of the Shaker Library," for enthusiastic cooperation, including the verification of information, and for his pursuit of my clues to sometimes nonexistent Shaker publications. To Professor Walter Brumm, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana, who recorded the Shaker holdings of the Dayton and Montgomery County Public Library and of the Cincinnati Public Library, and who also kindly allowed the use of several photocopies of materials on the western Shakers. To Peter Smyrl, graduate student, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, New Jersey, who spontaneously recorded and sent to me a list of the Seminary's Shaker holdings. To Sandra G. Brown, Rare Book Bibliographer, George Arents Research Library, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, who furnished copies of the catalog cards of the Shaker items in that Collection. To Julian P. Boyd, Editor of The Thomas Jefferson Papers currently being published by the Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, for having the Jefferson Papers searched in an attempt to verify Jefferson's often cited quotation about The Testimony of Christ's Second Appearing and Jefferson's purported ownership of this work (see no. 1471). To F. Gerald Ham for assistance in establishing Barnabas Bates's authorship of The Peculiarities of the Shakers, for advice about Abram Van Vleet's Account of the Conduct of the Shakers, and also for allowing me to read and take notes on his unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, "Shakerism in the Old West," University of Kentucky, 1962. To Mrs. Harold Goddard, Keeper of Books, Merrimack Valley Textile Museum, North Andover, Massachusetts, who kindly furnished references about Shaker textiles in her library. To John Ott, Director, Hancock Shaker Village, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, for innumerable kindnesses. To Mr. and Mrs. John Parker Carf, Enfield, New Hampshire, who courteously allowed me to check the Shaker collection of the late Clarice Carr. To Williams College Professors John K. Savacool, who verified and completed references in the Bibliotheque Nationale; Don Gifford, who read parts of the manuscript and made perceptive suggestions; Benjamin W. Labaree, who made many beneficial suggestions about changes made in the copy-edited manuscript; and Nicholas Fersen and Laszlo Versenyi, who translated Russian and Hungarian texts about the Shakers. To Thomas Swain, Woodbine, New Jersey, who volunteered to lend his records of the Shaker holdings in the libraries of the Philadelphia area. To John S. Wondolowski, Atlantic Community College, Mays Landing, New Jersey, who volunteered to lend the Shaker references for his doctoral dissertation in progress, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. To T. D. Seymour Bassett, Curator, Wilbur Collection, University of Vermont, Burlington, for wise counsel in the initial planning of the Bibliography. To Stanley Clarke Wyllie, Dayton Collection, Dayton and Montgomery County Public Library, Dayton, Ohio, for his courtesy in supplying a photocopy of William J. Hamilton's unpublished typescript of the "Tentative Bibliography of Books, Leaflets, Broadsides ascribed to Richard McNemar." To Professor C. William Miller, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Professor Rollo G. Silver, Boston, Massachusetts; Roger P. Bristol, University of Virginia, Charlottesville; Richard Anders, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts; and George J. Finney, Alexandria, Virginia—for their helpful suggestions and efforts toward the identification of the still unidentified^ Concise Statement (no. 1007, below). Others who have offered helpful information or courtesies are Robert E. Eshleman, Franklin Public Library, Franklin, Ohio; Aden H. Benning, Old Chatham, New York; Gladys Cook, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania; Ronald D. Emery, Darrow School, New Lebanon, New York; Charles Lothridge, New York City; the late Mrs. Herman J. Nord and Frank A. Myers, Shaker Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio; Mrs. Phyllis Shimko, Aurora, Oregon; and Brother Thomas Whitaker, St. Mark's Monastery, South Union, Kentucky.

I wish to thank the following librarians who offered both routine and special cooperation which sometimes involved the expenditure of time and effort. The institutions are identified by the symbols in parentheses (see pp. xxxix-xlv). Marjorie Gray Wynne (CtY), Helen B. Uhrich (CtY-D), Dudley Ball (DLC), Frank H. Sommer (DeWint), Riley Handy (KyBgW), James R. Bentley (KyLoF), James C. Thomas and Edward S. Nickels (KySP), Leo and Helen Flaherty (M), Mrs. Evelyn Vradenburgh (MBC), Richard J. Wolfe (MBCo), Barbara M. Hill (MJBP)J_Mr.s.-Harriette Williams (MH-BA), Violet S. Durgin (MN^)JJlober-t--GrNewman and Mrs. Janet M. Edwards (MPB), Mary M^Ritchk-(MSaE), Marcus McCorison and Mary Brown (MWA), R"obert Volz (MeB), Mrs. David Astor (MeHi), Mrs. Mildred Ledden, Darrell P. Welch, 'and James Corsaro (N), Charles C. Willard and James S. Irvine (NjPT), James J. Heslin (NHi)TWginia Close and Kenneth G. Cramer (NhD), Mrs. Elmer S. Forman (OCHP), Walter W. Curley (OC1), Yeatman Anderson, III (ODa), Marian H. Bates (OHi), Hazel Spencer Phillips (OLeWHi), Mrs. Lillian Tonkin (PPL), Jane A. Rittenhouse (PSC-Hi), and John H. Stanley (RPB). Visits to other libraries were made as a member of the public, identifying neither myself nor the Shaker Bibliographical project. It was an illuminating experience—the discovery of how perfunctory some large library public services have become in the pressures of the 1970's.

I am indebted to Jacquelin M. Clermont, who typed a large portion of the final manuscript, and to Eileen Sprague, who faithfully completed it.

In memory of Alden Johnson, former President and founder of Barre Publishers, I wish to express deep gratitude for his intelligent and quick understanding of bibliographical problems and for his enthusiastic acceptance of the Shaker Bibliography for publication long before submission of the final manuscript in 1972. Unfortunately, his untimely death delayed publication for over three years. To Barre editor, Jon Beckman, my gratitude for his cooperative understanding of problems, including those of copy editing. To David Home of The University Press of New England for helpful criticisms and for expediting the publication of the Bibliography.

A very special debt is owed Donald E. Richmond, whose interest, enthusiasm, and encouragement have been invaluable. His support in every phase of this compilation includes thousands of miles of driving, miles of leg work, checking numerous library card catalogs, deciphering manuscripts and microfilms, and proofreading the final manuscript.

The many persons who have contributed in one way or another are in no way responsible for inaccuracies that may be discovered; that responsibility rests with the compiler.

Wallace H. Cathcart's remarkable collection of Shakeriana long ago made evident the need for a more complete bibliography than was available. After more than sixty years this need has now been fulfilled. Meanwhile the accelerating interest in all aspects of Shaker life had increased the scope of the problem, extending the Bibliography to more than four thousand entries. These entries and the annotations have considerably expanded information concerning many areas of Shaker activities and show the wide-ranging interest in the Shakers. In the process of gathering this information new questions have arisen which provide interesting and fruitful topics for further research. Inevitably, omissions will be discovered, but unless this bibliography serves as a nucleus of information about the Shakers which will stimulate the gathering of additional relevant information and the correction of existing information, it will not have served its full purpose.

Mary L. Richmond
Williams town, Massachusetts